There are two groups of vitamins: those that are soluble in water (vitamin C and all the B complex vitamins) and those that are soluble in fat (vitamins A, D, E and K). While necessary to sustain life, vitamins are mostly not produced in the body, but enter our organism primarily through food.
Vitamin A and Carotene
The daily requirement is from 1-2mg. It is contained in large quantities in green vegetables, especially spinach and kale, carrots, tomatoes, parsley, peas, milk and full-fat dairy products, dry and oily fruit, citrus, bananas, peaches, cherries, eggs, liver, whole grains and fish oil. Vitamin A deficiency causes impaired vision at night, brittle nails, and skin lesions. It is used for the construction and maintenance of tissues, skin and mucous membranes.
The daily requirement is approximately 3mg. It is contained in large quantities in yeast, cereal seeds, walnuts, hazelnuts, beans, corn flour, ham, spinach, carrot, beet leaves and grapefruit. A lack of vitamin B1 causes constipation, muscle weakness, difficulty in circulation and nerve weakness. It turns carbohydrates into body energy.
Vitamin B2 (F, G)
The daily needs is about 2mg. It is contained in large quantities in olive oil, mushrooms, veal offal, full-fat cheese, parsley, carrots, and celery with leaves, green peppers, spinach and kale. A lack of vitamin B2 causes inflammation of the connective tissue, shooting nails, headache, and impaired vision, tearing and burning eyes. It turns fat into body energy; very important for the maintenance of the skin and eyes, and is considered a "beauty vitamin".
The daily need is 9-15mg. It is contained in large quantities in parsley, cabbage, potatoes, asparagus, yeast, liver, nuts, chicken, mushrooms, meat. Vitamin B3 deficiency causes inflammation of the skin and disorders of the stomach and intestines. In the stomach and intestines it maintains a healthy, growth-promoting protein which is converted into body energy.
The daily requirement is 400-1000mg. It is contained in large quantities in liver, yeast, carrots, mushrooms, green vegetables and rye bread. A lack of vitamin B4 causes anemia and retarded growth. It helps to create red blood cells, a positive effect on metabolism.
The daily requirement is approximately 8mg. It is contained in large quantities in grapefruit, strawberries, oranges, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, wheat germ, yeast, eggs, mushrooms and pork. A lack of Vitamin B5 causes movement disorders and headaches. It is important for metabolism and weight control; makes the body resistant, one of the "beauty vitamin", important for hair.
Vitamin PP (niacin, nicotinic acid)
The daily need is about 30mg. It is contained in large quantities in pepper, orange, buckwheat, eggs, mushrooms, liver, heart, brain, fish, sea food, meat, legumes, whole grains and dried plums. A lack of it causes indigestion and nervous system pellagra. It takes part in the work of metabolism, is involved in the metabolism of sulfur and responsible for the function of the epithelium and nerve tissue.
Folic Acid/PGA (BC, vitamin M)
The daily need is 5mg. It is contained in large quantities in spinach, liver, yeast, oranges, parsley, carrots, potatoes, wheat, peanuts, cucumbers, bananas, cherries, lemons, and broccoli. A lack of it causes anemia, diarrhea and similar digestive problems. It takes part in many biochemical processes, it is important for cell growth and division, a cytostatic effect and enhances the absorption of vitamin A.
The daily demand is 3mg. It is contained in large quantities in liver, kidneys, fish, milk, eggs and muscles. A lack of it causing disorder in the cycle, pallor, brittle nails. It is important for the maturation of red blood cells.
The daily requirement is 100 mg. It is contained in large quantities in cabbage, spinach, peppers, tomatoes, citrus, black currant, strawberries, cauliflower, pomegranate, kale, horseradish, kohlrabi, onions, radishes, veal offal, parsley, broccoli, blueberries, artichokes and fennel. A lack of it causes bleeding gums, fatigue, irritability and dizziness. It strengthens the immune system and participates in the absorption of iron.
The daily need is from 2.5-10mg. It is contained in large quantities in olive oil, milk, fish oil, sardines, eel, herring, liver, eggs, spinach, beets, cabbage, carrots, lettuce and tuna. Vitamin D deficiency causes abnormal development of legs, bad teeth and skeletal deformity. It is important for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and the body produces it only under the influence of sunlight.
The daily requirements is 12mg. It is contained in large quantities in milk, wheat germ, vegetable oils, eggs, walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, green vegetables, especially watercress salad and liver. A vitamin E deficiency causes anemia in babies, skin changes and a general poor condition. It preserves and stabilizes cells and prevents oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.
The daily requirement is 1.5mg. It is contained in large quantities in cabbage, spinach, tomatoes, soy, and cauliflower, carrots with leaves, Brussels sprouts, whole grains, milk, oranges and nettles. A lack of it causes the blood to not clot. It affects blood clotting and blood count and has an analgesic action in cancer.